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† throw, v.2

Forms:  eOE throuadae (past tense), eOE ðrouuian, OE þreowian (rare), OE þrowian, OE ðrouia (Northumbrian), OE ðrowian, lOE þrowigen, eME þreowe (south-west midlands), eME þrewe (south-east midlands), eME þrouwe, eME þrowi (west midlands), eME þrowie, eME ðrowe, eME ðrowie, ME þrowe. (Show Less)
Origin: A word inherited from Germanic.
Etymology: Cognate with Old High German druoēn  , druoen   (also as thruoen  , troen  , truen  ) to suffer, to endure, probably < an ablaut variant (lengthened o  -grade) of the Germanic base of Old English þrēa   threat, calamity, affliction, Old Saxon thrā-   (in thrāwerk   suffering, pain), Old High German drawa  , drōa   threat, burden (see threa v.   and compare also throe n.).
Derivation from an ablaut grade of the base of throw v.1   has alternatively been suggested, but seems semantically less likely.
With use of the Germanic base with reference to physical suffering (rather than in sense ‘threat’ or the like), perhaps compare also Old Icelandic -þrá   (in líkþrá   leprosy), Old Swedish -thrā-   (in līkthrā-sott  , in the same sense), although the etymology of the element in these words is disputed.
In Old English the prefixed form geþrōwian   is also attested in the senses ‘to suffer, endure, to die; to atone for; to sympathize’ (compare y- prefix); compare also aþrōwian   to endure (rare; compare a- prefix1), efenþrōwian   to sympathize with, feel compassion for (compare even adv.).

 1. transitive. To suffer, bear, endure.In to throw death esp. with reference to the Passion of Christ.

OE   Ælfric Catholic Homilies: 1st Ser. (Royal) (1997) i. 188   For ðy he com to us þæt he wolde for us deað þrowian [a1225 Vesp. A.xxii þrowian].
OE   Beowulf (2008) 2605   Geseah his mondryhten under heregriman hat þrowian.
OE   Blickling Homilies 93   Feallaþ ofor us, & us bewreoþ.., þæt we ne þurfon þysne ege leng þrowian æt þyssum englum.
c1175  (▸OE)    Homily (Bodl. 343) in S. Irvine Old Eng. Homilies (1993) 170   Heo moten eac þenne heom resten þæs runes and þæs ȝewinnes þe heo nu ðrowæð.
a1225  (?OE)    MS Lamb. in R. Morris Old Eng. Homilies (1868) 1st Ser. 17   He..þrouwede deð for al moncun.

OE—a1225(Hide quotations)


 2. intransitive. To suffer, undergo suffering or pain; spec. to suffer death. Esp. with reference to the Passion of Christ.

OE   Blickling Homilies 65   He [sc. Christ] wolde þrowian for ealra manna hæle.
lOE   Homily: Gospel of Nicodemus (Vesp. D.xiv) in R. D.-N. Warner Early Eng. Homilies (1917) 79   Bute ge us þæs Hælendes lichame gesyllen, ge sculen on yfele deaðe þrowigen.
a1225  (?OE)    MS Lamb. in R. Morris Old Eng. Homilies (1868) 1st Ser. 121   His ahȝenes þonkes he þrowede for us and binom ure sunnan.
c1225  (?c1200)    St. Katherine (Royal) (1981) l. 527   Hwi walde he þrowin as he dude, ant þolien deð on rode.
c1275  (?a1200)    Laȝamon Brut (Calig.) (1963) l. 5681 (MED)   Þa þe he wes ald mon, þa com him uuel on; þat vuel hine heold stronge, ah he þreowede longe.
a1325  (c1250)    Gen. & Exod. (1968) l. 1180 (MED)   On dreme him cam tiding for-quat He ðrowede and ðolede un-timing ðat.
c1390   MS Vernon Homilies in Archiv f. das Studium der Neueren Sprachen (1877) 57 299 (MED)   As þis seke mon lay þrowande, A Dragun he saih.

OE—c1390(Hide quotations)


This entry has been updated (OED Third Edition, September 2018).

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